The Future of Self-Determination: Four Visions

From Impact: For More Info, Go Here…

For the past 30 years, the principle of self-determination has had a growing emphasis in the services, policies, and societal expectations that impact the lives of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). We asked four individuals who’ve been deeply engaged with advocacy for this principle during that time to share their personal perspectives on where we’ve been and where we’re going in this country when it comes to the exercise of self-determination by people with IDD. Here are their reflections.


John Smith is a Coordinator at the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. He may be reached at

Sue Swenson is President of Inclusion International, and lives in Bethesda, Maryland. She may be reached at

John Tschida is Acting Executive Director, Association of University Centers on Disabilities, Washington, DC, and a former Director of the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research. He may be reached at

Jeanine Zlockie is Director of Special Projects at the National Association of State Directors of Developmental Disabilities Services, Alexandria, Virginia. She may be reached at

Leave a Reply